Force Science News #245:
New study: Mental imagery boosts shooting accuracy under threat
Training note: CONGRATULATIONS to the 89 graduates of the most recent Force Science Certification Course conducted last week at Las Vegas Metro PD. They represented a wide variety of ranks from 50 agencies in 21 states/provinces and 3 countries.
This group was the first to experience a number of new and expanded blocks of instruction that have just been added to the Certification Course for 2014 as well as a new approach to the practical application exercise portion and an expanded written test and they did an outstanding job! It's an honor to welcome them all to the ranks of our Certification Course grads worldwide.
IN THIS ISSUE
I. New study: Mental imagery boosts shooting accuracy under threat
A new study showing that simple mental imagery can help LEOs to keep their shooting skills from deteriorating in high-threat encounters has been reported by researchers in the Netherlands.
At that country's national police academy, university scientists in the disciplines of human behavior and human movement science conducted before-and-after firearms performance tests on 66 officers.
After an initial shooting exercise to establish a baseline, some officers were exposed to a seven-minute session during which they imagined themselves shooting with unfailing accuracy even when under the stress of an attack, while a control group merely listened to unrelated audio input.
When then exposed to a simulated gunbattle, the mental imagers consistently out-performed the others, whose targeting skills under fire tended to erode significantly from their "normal" level of accuracy.
This finding has led the researchers to recommend that imagery exercises not only be incorporated into "regular" police training and practice but that officers "use mental imagery whenever they have a spare moment" to improve their performance in what may be life-or-death situations.
A report of the study, titled "Positive Effects of Imagery on Police Officers' Shooting Performance under Threat," appears online prior to publication in the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology. A brief summary can be found free of charge clicking here, where the full seven-page report can also be accessed for a fee.
ANXIETY FACTOR. In the researchers' article, team leader Laura Colin, a faculty member of Human Movement Sciences at VU University in Amsterdam, notes that in real-life deadly force encounters, LEOs typically hit what they are shooting at only 15-50% of the time. This is "substantially worse than during annual shooting tests," Colin points out, when "almost all officers are able to hit well over 90% of the targets."
The culprit, other researchers have suggested, is "anxiety" that stems from the possibility of being shot in real gunfights. This threat causes officers to "reduce goal-directed attention, speed up their shot execution, and shoot with considerably less accuracy," Colin writes.
Mental imagery has been widely and effectively used in high-stress sports to improve motor performance, Colin knew. If the imagery accurately reflects real-world conditions, it appears to work because it activates "the same neural networks that are involved" in the actual movements imagined and thus "strengthens the neural pathways needed to perform the intended action in real life."
Mental imagery has been applied anecdotally in law enforcement since it was introduced as "crisis rehearsal" in the Calibre Press Street Survival (R) Seminars in the 1980s. But, Colin writes, little has been documented in scientific studies "about imagery's potential to help...officers' shooting performance."
The primary goal of her group was to "investigate whether imagery can help to prevent negative effects of anxiety" when officers are shooting under threat. "[O]ur aim was not to reduce stress and anxiety" for the officers but to allow them to learn to shoot accurately "despite higher levels of stress and anxiety."
SHOTS FIRED. The 53 males and 13 females who volunteered as subjects from the team's experiments ranged in age from 19 to 55 and had between one and 30 years' police service. Pre-experiment testing confirmed that none had any inherent predisposition to elevated levels of anxiety.
The participants were randomly divided into three groups, which were balanced in terms of their demographics. Then one at a time they entered a room at the academy and, at a distance of about 16 feet, confronted a firearms instructor who was suited up in protective gear.
Each officer first shot at him a total of 16 times from various positions, aiming for marked areas on each leg and on his chest. They fired a Walther P5 9mm semiauto identical to their duty weapon except that it had been modified to shoot Simunition marking ammunition.
For this part of the experiment, the "suspect" had an "imitation handgun" with no trigger, which could not actually fire, "making performance in this condition a relatively harmless experience" ("low threat") for the volunteers.
After that shooting bloc, there was a rest period during which two of the groups went through a mental imagery exercise while the third (control) group was instructed to listen "carefully" to unrelated news reports. All participants were reminded that they would be in another shooting confrontation shortly, this one under "high-threat conditions."
IMAGERY "INTERVENTION." The imagery groups, seated comfortably in a quiet room with their eyes closed, were instructed on iPods to imagine their performance in the upcoming encounter. However, the scripts that guided these two groups were somewhat different.
The script for one group (designated as EI, for "execution imagery") concentrated only on guiding the officers "through the shooting exercise...pointing them specifically to successful shot execution." For example:
"...You see his clothing and the white targets attached to it. You look at his arms and see that he points the gun at you. You also aim your weapon, you focus on his left leg, you shoot and it's a hit. You feel the recoil of your weapon in your hand. You aim at his right leg and hit again. Then you look at the target on his chest, and you fire twice; both hits!..."
Officers in the second group (EEI: "execution-emotion imagery"), were guided through the same shooting exercise, but that script also included "the threat of being hit and effectively dealing with the stress and anxiety that this typically evokes," so that the researchers could judge whether injecting emotion and sensory perception into the imagery might affect the outcome. Here, the narration included:
"...You see that he aims the Simunition weapon at you. You know he can hit you, so you feel the nerves rush through your body. You try to remain calm and aim at his left leg. BAM! He fires and you feel the pain in your leg. You...recover, concentrate on his left leg, shoot and hit. You aim at his right leg and hit again. Then you look at the target on his chest, and you fire twice; both hits!!..."
Each script, about three minutes apiece, was repeated twice, with a minute's pause in between.
When the scripts, the newscast, and the rest period were over, the officers once again came face to face with the suspect--only this time, he was armed with a pistol that he used to fire Simunition rounds back at the volunteers. "Being hit with these cartridges produces a sensation of pain, the threat of which was known to cause an increase" in the participants' anxiety, Colin explains.
RESULTS. Through various testing mechanisms, the researchers were able to confirm that the average anxiety level, heart rate, and mental effort expended were significantly and uniformly higher among all the groups during the "high-threat" portion of the experiment.
Where the groups differed significantly was in shot placement. During the first (low-threat) shooting exercise, all three groups scored about the same, with an accuracy rate of about 40%. But in the high-threat exercise, the control group's performance deteriorated markedly, dropping to nearly 30% accuracy on average.
Both imagery groups, on the other hand, "were able to maintain their shot accuracy" level during the stress of the high-threat exercise. In fact, the researchers found, "they even showed a slight but non-significant increase in their accuracy."
This superior performance "was not accompanied by lower levels of anxiety," the team reports. "[R]ather than reducing anxiety, the imagery interventions...helped participants to maintain shot accuracy despite higher levels of anxiety" (italics added).
Interestingly, the EEI group who had received the emotion-infused imagery, "did not significantly outperform the EI group.... On the contrary, the EI group performed slightly (but non-significantly) better than the EEI group...," leading the research team to conclude that "focusing on successful shot execution is pivotal.... Although it does not harm performance, adding emotional statements does not have additional value."
RECOMMENDATIONS. The researchers note that the imagery "interventions" in this study "were implemented on a single day and lasted only 7 minutes." The fact that even this minimal exposure to mental imagery can "reduce negative effects of anxiety" holds "important practical implications" for more extensive use in police training and practice.
"[P]olice trainers may want to incorporate imagery interventions into their shooting practices to help officers get more" out of their training, Colin writes. "Imagery may help new and inexperienced officers to achieve a higher level of performance more quickly [and] officers who imagine their shooting performance may learn to maintain a more goal-directed focus of attention...when circumstances are stressful...."
On top of regular practice, officers with proper training "may use mental imagery whenever they have a spare moment," and even employ it as they rehearse various what-if scenarios en route to potentially dangerous calls.
The researchers acknowledge that their experiments were limited in scope. Still, they consider their findings "promising" and hope that they will stimulate further study of this potentially powerful and life-saving training aid.
In their study and its bibliography, the authors reference Force Science research conducted in Northern Ireland by Dr. Bill Lewinski and Dr. Joan Vickers, which compared the performances of novice and elite shooters.
Lewinski told Force Science News: "Our research showed that really great shooters have the ability to focus their attention with laser precision on what needs to be done to stop a threat. Pain, fear, and anxiety are overcome by this intensity of focus.
"Usually this ability is developed through extensive practice, but the Netherlands study suggests that imagery, conducted properly, could have a positive effect in aiding this attentional focus, saving training cost and time while improving performance."
Our thanks to Chris Lawrence, faculty member for the Force Science Analysis certification course, for alerting us to this study. For a detailed description of the essential elements of an effective mental imagery exercise, the researchers recommend "The PETTLEP Approach to Motor Imagery," which can be accessed without charge by clicking here.
II. From our inbox: Our readers write...
Here is a representative sampling of emails from readers concerning Force Science News #243 (11/20/13), which reported one officer's experience in responding to an active shooter inside a large shopping mall. Some letters have been edited for brevity or clarity.
Getting EMS inside is a primary priority
Most of the problems in active-shooter situations are related to securing and clearing an area large enough to activate EMS rapidly. We ran an exercise in a school where we used 40 role players, about half of them with varying degrees of "injuries."
Our hunt teams cleared a dining hall first and within five minutes we had EMS inside for triage. As the hunt teams fanned out, rescue teams began pulling victims to the dining room. Officers found chairs that were on rollers and literally rolled most to safety and medical aid. As more officers arrived, they were assigned primarily to victims' search and rescue and security. The dead were left where they fell.
I've been a proponent of single-officer entries but realized years ago that the real issues are after the shooting event itself, which is usually over in a few minutes.
Lt. Andrew Casavant
Walton County (FL) SO
"Sensory overload" a training need
The "sensory overload" factor is not one we've addressed in our tactical firearms training, but we should, because it could well happen for any responding agency. I think most of our officers will be pretty well equipped to respond to something like the NJ mall incident since most have opted to purchase and carry their own patrol rifles.
I love reading your articles...always something interesting and/or thought provoking.
Res. Ofcr. Jim Wilson
Redwood City (CA) PD
Malls: Killer magnets?
"Gun-free zone" shopping malls are ideal for mass killers. They know that legally armed citizens probably won't be present.
Former police/military firearms instructor
Thanks for the excellent lessons from the NJ mall shooting. "David K.'s" willingness to provide such an informative report may very well save lives and improve the effectiveness of responders.
My one suggestion concerns use of the term "assault rifle" in the first paragraph. This term indicates a selective firing mechanism for transitioning the firearm from semi-automatic to fully automatic. Most firearms the media improperly label as "assault rifle," "AK-47," et al., are in fact semi-automatic or "auto-loading" firearms. [Ed.'s Note: Authorities have identified the suspect's weapon as "a Saiga AK variant 7.62 semi-automatic rifle."]
Fully automatic firearms (or those which can transition to fully automatic) have been scrupulously controlled since the National Firearms Act of 1934, and additionally restricted in their manufacture since the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986. To my knowledge, since 1934, there has only been one incident of a legally owned fully automatic firearm being used in criminal activity.
Professionalism dictates that we are not only accurate in our terminology, but that we also patiently correct and educate others in the correct use of the language.
Insp. Randy Erwin
New Mexico Rangers
Great article and insights! Hopefully, the brass heavily debriefed the troops and seriously considered the line officers' comments and observation.
Al Mateer, supervisory probation officer
Sacramento (CA) Probation Dept.
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